Wednesday, April 10, 2013

Pelajaran Matematika Grafik Petersen

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The Petersen graphis an undirected graph with 10 vertices and 15 edges. It is a small graph that serves as a useful example and counterexample for many problems in graph theory. The Petersen graph is named for Julius Petersen, who in 1898 constructed it to be the smallest bridgeless cubic graph with no three-edge-coloring. Although the graph is generally credited to Petersen, it had in fact first appeared 12 years earlier, in 1886. Donald Knuth states that the Petersen graph is "a remarkable configuration that serves as a counterexample to many optimistic predictions about what might be true for graphs in general."
The Petersen graph is the complement of the line graph of K5. It is also the Kneser graph KG5,2; this means that it has one vertex for each 2-element subset of a 5-element set, and two vertices are connected by an edge if and only if the corresponding 2-element subsets are disjoint from each other. As a Kneser graph of the form KG2n − 1,n− 1 it is an example of an odd graph. Geometrically, the Petersen graph is the graph formed by the vertices and edges of the hemi-dodecahedron, that is, a dodecahedron with opposite points, lines and faces identified together.
The Petersen graph is nonplanar. Any nonplanar graph has as minors either the complete graph K5, or the complete bipartite graph K3,3, but the Petersen graph has both as minors. The K5 minor can be formed by contracting the edges of a perfect matching, for instance the five short edges in the first picture. The K3,3 minor can be formed by deleting one vertex (for instance the central vertex of the 3-symmetric drawing) and contracting an edge incident to each neighbor of the deleted vertex.
The Petersen graph has crossing number 2.
The most common and symmetric plane drawing of the Petersen graph, as a pentagram within a pentagon, has five crossings. However, this is not the best drawing for minimizing crossings; there exists another drawing (shown in the figure) with only two crossings. Thus, the Petersen graph has crossing number 2. On a torus the Petersen graph can be drawn without edge crossings; it therefore has orientable genus 1.
The Petersen graph is a unit distance graph: it can be drawn in the plane with each edge having unit length.
The Petersen graph can also be drawn (with crossings) in the plane in such a way that all the edges have equal length. That is, it is a unit distance graph.
The simplest non-orientable surface on which the Petersen graph can be embedded without crossings is the projective plane. This is the embedding given by the hemi-dodecahedron construction of the Petersen graph. The projective plane embedding can also be formed from the standard pentagonal drawing of the Petersen graph by placing a cross-cap within the five-point star at the center of the drawing, and routing the star edges through this cross-cap; the resulting drawing has six pentagonal faces. This construction forms a regular map and shows that the Petersen graph has non-orientable genus 1.
The Petersen graph is strongly regular. It is also symmetric, meaning that it is edge transitive and vertex transitive. More strongly, it is 3-arc-transitive: every directed three-edge path in the Petersen graph can be transformed into every other such path by a symmetry of the graph. It is one of only 13 cubic distance-regular graphs.
The automorphism group of the Petersen graph is the symmetric group S5; the action of S5 on the Petersen graph follows from its construction as a Kneser graph. Every homomorphism of the Petersen graph to itself that doesn't identify adjacent vertices is an automorphism. As shown in the figures, the drawings of the Petersen graph may exhibit five-way or three-way symmetry, but it is not possible to draw the Petersen graph in the plane in such a way that the drawing exhibits the full symmetry group of the graph. Despite its high degree of symmetry, the Petersen graph is not a Cayley graph. It is the smallest vertex-transitive graph that is not a Cayley graph.
Application of Petersen graph
Hamiltonian paths and cycles
The Petersen graph is hypo-Hamiltonian: by deleting any vertex, such as the center vertex in the drawing, the remaining graph is Hamiltonian. In addition, this drawing shows symmetry of order three, in contrast to the symmetry of order five visible in the first drawing above.
The Petersen graph has a Hamiltonian path but no Hamiltonian cycle. It is the smallest bridgeless cubic graph with no Hamiltonian cycle. It is hypohamiltonian, meaning that although it has no Hamiltonian cycle, deleting any vertex makes it Hamiltonian, and is the smallest hypohamiltonian graph.
As a finite connected vertex-transitive graph that does not have a Hamiltonian cycle, the Petersen graph is a counterexample to a variant of the Lovász conjecture, but the canonical formulation of the conjecture asks for a Hamiltonian path and is verified by the Petersen graph.
Only five vertex-transitive graphs with no Hamiltonian cycles are known: the complete graph K2, the Petersen graph, the Coxeter graph and two graphs derived from the Petersen and Coxeter graphs by replacing each vertex with a triangle. If G is a 2-connected, r-regular graph with at most 3r + 1 vertices, then G is Hamiltonian or Gis the Petersen graph.
To see that the Petersen graph has no Hamiltonian cycle C, we describe the ten-vertex 3-regular graphs that do have a Hamiltonian cycle and show that none of them is the Petersen graph, by finding a cycle in each of them that is shorter than any cycle in the Petersen graph. Any ten-vertex Hamiltonian 3-regular graph consists of a ten-vertex cycle C plus five chords. If any chord connects two vertices at distance two or three along C from each other, the graph has a 3-cycle or 4-cycle, and therefore cannot be the Petersen graph. If two chords connect opposite vertices of C to vertices at distance four along C, there is again a 4-cycle. The only remaining case is a Möbius ladder formed by connecting each pair of opposite vertices by a chord, which again has a 4-cycle. Since the Petersen graph has girth five, it cannot be formed in this way and has no Hamiltonian cycle.
Example of Hamiltonian paths and cycles

Pentagon, USA.

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